Shipler definitely doesn't slack off when it comes to appealing to logic, particularly statistics. In a book about living off minimum wage however, it's hard to avoid using statistics to describe the various economic hardships these people encounter. One example is the exact wages he provides. For Caroline, these begin "at $6.25, going to $6.80, sometimes up to $7.50." These give the writing a new level of realness, opposed to using a general term like "low wages".
The authors integration of testimonies of the worming poor illustrates common hardships of the working poor.
Pathos response **
The author provides the logic of poverty and why it is a hard cycle to get out of for so many across America.
As one would expect from a book revolving around money and current issues, facts are obviously going to be essential, and David understands this. The most notable method (and arguably the only needed for this subject) used in The Working Poor is statistics. While I'd argue logos is the least used rhetorical appeal in the book, its usage is sufficent enough. Within the context of the book, these stats generally focus on gaps between the poor and the wealthy, as seen on page 6. which mentions how "a... net worth of $1.589,000 among the... %10 and minus $4900 means they[the poor] owe more than they own". However, they can also be used to fit more specific purposes, like on page 36, which has not statistics, but a chart detailing the accounting of a poor family.
The author of the working poor appeals to logos by just blatantly putting it out there that people don`t know the proper forms they need to fill out or that their employers don`t tell them what forms they need. This how the author uses logic to get his point across.
The beginning chapters of the book are filled with statistics and facts; this was to appeal to the audience's Logos. A specific example was when Shipler described the H&R Block Scam with specific interest rates and prices that they were charging their customers. Including how these prices affected the customer's bank accounts.
Foe people who enjoy to see numbers behind an argument or a claim, the author definitely makes sure to satisfy those kind of people. Throughout the book the author is constantly writing facts and statistics about our country's economy and how that relates to a family in poverty. He also used these statistics to emphasize the dangers of these low wage jobs some people (especially immigrants) are taking and the dangers of traveling to get there as well. In chapter four the author states that "following the introduction in 1993 of new technology and additional manpower to monitor the border, the number of deaths from exposure jumped from four to eighty-four."
When first reading, the author mainly appeals to logos. I thought it was going to be heavily used throughout the book but it was mainly used in chapter 1. That is why I had a bit of trouble completing the first couple of chapters. The author used a lot of new vocabulary regarding economics. Although the first chapter took a longer time to read it helped develop the author's overall argument. The contrast of how Americans view income tax create a solid background for the later anecdotes provided throughout the book.
As said, appeals to logos should not be surprising when discussing a book regarding economics as a whole. An example of appeals to logos throughout the book when contrasting how Americans with different incomes view income taxes differently. This includes how Debra Hall who was excited because "[she'll] get $,3079 back." The author further explains the use of the anecdote and appeals to logos by describing how many like Debra did not know about income tax for a long time.
Logos is established throughout the book. David K. Shipler used logos the most in the beginning chapters to help support his side of the argument. An example of this could be seen when Shipler states, "That works out to $10.63 an hour, or $3.38 above the federal minimum wage, assuming that someone can get a full forty hours of work a week for all fifty-two weeks of the year, or 2,080 working hours annually." As I kept reading I noticed that the appeal to logos had declined and was then only used to help the reader understand the significance of what David had said or it had been within a quote that someone he interviewed had said. "Where farmers fail to post warnings that fields have been sprayed, for example, and ignore the mandatory waiting periods before resuming hand harvest, minuscule fines of $200 or $300 are levied. Only when overt illness results can the finds reach $2,000, the union reports" would be an example of him helping the reader.
David Shipler appeals to logos a lot throughout his book in order to argue his points. His writing includes a lot of statistics in facts which gives the reader a very good idea of what life is really like for the working poor. For example, Shipler states, "They gathered the potatoes by hand and filled bushel-sized pails as fast as they could for 40 cents a bucket." This gives you a clear picture of how much money people really make, and how hard the conditions really are.
throughout the book Shipler States the earning of workers, like $5.25/hour for immigrants in the garment industry, which is a fact that appeals to logos. Not only does he state wages, he delves into court dates, experiences of children and families, names of schools and work places, etc. All of which are facts.
In the novel shipler uses statistics such as average American pay and many other facts that helps support his arguement by giving the reader shocking facts and brings to light how uneven the American economy actually is by numbers which don’t lie.
One specific example from the book is the reasoning of making profits and raising worker's salaries at the bottom of page 87. Although it's a quote from a business owner, it still appeals to the reader's sense of reason: "Lets say the garment costs $15 and you charged it at $37.50... You're hoping you'll make maybe $15 ... You've got to pay $3.75 to the rep... so that basically leaves you only $3 something for discounts and cushioning."
Shiplers appeals to logos intrigue me in the manner in which he utilizes them. For example, on page 100 he discusses how "In the year from October 2004 to October 2005 alone, 473 people died. In 2008, the U.S. government counted 320, but Mexico's government put the toll at 725." I love how Shipler doesn't just through out facts that are often difficult to apply or understand; the data and the numbers that he writes about always provide support to a claim or they suggest and imply new developments or issues. Relative to the example I provided, Shipler is somewhat implying that the death toll crossing from Mexico to the U.S. is so unfortunate and embarrassing that the U.S. has a vested interest in not being completely honest about its truth.
Shipler appeals to logos throughout the book to make his argument clear and uses data and statistics to support his claim. He also uses calculations and data to explain to the author how many things, such as taxes and businesses work, for example: "5 1/4 oz. of popcorn he received cost 23.71875 cents in a supermarket but only 16.5 cents at prices theater managers paid...5 cents in electricity to cook the popcorn and 1 cent for the bag. Total cost: 22.5 cents. Subtracting sales tax, that left a profit of $4.075, or 1811%." Shipler not only presents the facts and numbers, but he explains it to the reader so the information is clear to them and can understand his point.
Shipler uses facts and statistics throughout the book as examples of calculations like taxes. And also uses the fact that many people do not know the correct forms to fill out or how to fill them out correctly because mo one tells them how to or wants to tell them how to.
Shipler included a large number of logos, "She paid her employess a minimum of $8." talking about the minimum wage an employer pays "That black strapless gown (...) sell for $200 or $300 (...) charged $20 to sew it (...) 15 to 20 percent more to make (...) labor accounted some 70 percent of his expenses." The costs of a contractor making a dress, "She made between $1700 and $1800 a month (...) minimum wage of $6.75." The earnings of a couple working poor
Throughout the book, Shipler uses an appeal to logos through using various statistics to get his argument across to the reader. In discussing poverty in third world counties, Shipler explains how “Mexicans get about $4 a day for factory work; Cambodians earn close to 16 or 23 cents an hour.” This appeals to logos in that it statistically shows how underpaid many workers are across the globe. Many other statistics are given in the early chapters when discussing the low-wages and when discussing the numbers behind the various immigrant businesses. Over time, the appeal to logos lessens as the book moves more towards the impact and meaning of these stories, and drifts from the statistical side of them.
Shipler appeals to logos many times throughout the book by giving facts and statistics to support his arguments. He statistically explains how a clothing item is made and sold by a contractor and how they make a profit. he states,”That black strapless gown on the rack would ultimately sell for $200 or $300, Joe figured, and he charged just $20 to sew it together, which was about 15 to 20 percent more than it cost him to make.” He uses facts to explain to us how a contractor works, to go along with the argument he is making, that workers in the fashion industry work hard and get paid little wages.
This author excessively uses logic though testimonials, his own narrations, as well as the use of numbers and factual evidence. This logic and his from of using it also appeals to Ethos.
Mrs. Theaker's students will be conducting discussions about The Working Poor by David K. Shipler here.