As I mentioned briefly in my ethos statement, having the actual poverty victims humanizes the book; by this, I mean that their stories make you feel genuinely bad for them. A great example is in the section "Sins of the Father" on pages 146-150. These pages detail the struggles of a woman named Wendy Waxler, who dealt with sexual abuse, as well as poverty. The book detail who with Wendy, "Each pregnancy ended badly, like each relationship...A baby was stillborn. An engagement was ended by Wendy when the man hit her". Shipler chooses to forego more objective information in this section of the book, because statistics on links to sexual abuse and poverty would make Waxler just a number in a study, rather than a real person with real struggles. And this is just one example, using one person.
The author appeals to pathos by describing how terrible people lives are while living on the poverty and their daily struggle to be able to feed themselves. This how the author pulls at people`s "heart strings".
The author immediately appeals o pathos in both the introduction of the book and the beginning of chapter 2. He describes how people can not afford things associated with their occupations He also pulls at readers 'heart strings' when describing anecdotes that involve the mistreatment of children.
EX: "The man who washes cars does not own one. " (3)
The book appeals to Pathos by making readers feel and understand the hardships of the victims. Ex, Debra, a poor woman who suffers from depression and an inability to advance in her career, causing her to have contemplated suicide in the past. The book stated that her depression began improving after her living conditions began to improve as well. This woman's mental well-being was greatly affected by her ability to live comfortably with the amount of money she has.
The author's appeal to pathos really helps pull out reader's emotion which allows for the reader to read past the statistics and somehow connect to the low income families. This was such an important tool because people generally don't seem to be changed by statistics but by how they feel. In Chapter 3 for example, a Korean women says that by the time she gets home "husband's snoring and everyone's asleep, and [she] feels like, why [is she] living? [She] gets very depressed." This makes the reader feel a sense of pity for this wife and mother who has lost hope in her current situation in poverty working long hours, not being able to have a conversation with anyone in her family when she gets home.
Shipler appeals to so many emotions in his writing it's hard to pinpoint one. Every person's story effects the reader in a different way, which its why pathos is so essential to the argument. When a worker complains about not getting to spend any time with her family and questions her reason for being alive it hits the reader hard, appealing to sorrow. When a worker living in a moldy run down house with at least five other men and no furniture's only complaint is having no work, it makes the reader feel grateful for what they have and sorry that they ever complained. There are so many moving stories in this book that all people should hear and that's probably why Shipler decided to share them.
I agree with you. Many of the anecdotes used throughout the book pull on on one's "heartstrings". Some more than others but they all create the overall sense of sympathy. The author's tone of frustration accompanies these anecdotes often. The stories of the people living off of the minimum wage puts many things into perspective. It makes me as the reader to know that many people do not have access to things that we often view as a necessity or everyday objects. The stories that spoke out to me in particular were the ones about companies that are involved in our everyday lives such as the garment businesses. It was always spoken about how workers are mistreated and under payed in these companies but the addition of the facts and numbers makes it even more sad. It's sad to know that there are people outside of the world who's version of poverty in completely different when compared to the US.
Each of Shipler's stories helps his appeal to pathos. Many people do not realize how other people live, and it is eye-opening to see. The stories make you realize that even when you think you have it rough, there are people who have it so much worse.
Every story and every statistics that Shipler uses in the book appeals to pathos. He uses these stories and their experiences to pull on the readers "heart strings". While reading, the reader always feels a connection towards those of the stories and feels the need for something to change. The sense of change is due to the statistics that David uses, so the reader has a visual to understand. Like the story of Sarah with her struggle of trying to spend just the right of money she actually earns after paying the bills along with other struggles with her marriage and her children.
By stating things about how much people get paid and how they live off of it struggling, one can reasonably understand their struggle, not just financially. When Shipler talks about the lady who couldn’t get promoted because she had no teeth, even though she couldn’t afford dentures because her job paid so low, you can understand why she wouldn’t get promoted, but also understand why she should (bc she’s a good worker) This invoked a certain pity for the workers and their families. Especially in the chapter the Sins of our Fathers. That chapter talks about rape, domestic violence, drugs, and everything else imaginable. With a main focus on children. Children who’ve been through rape and drug use and violence. This hurts many people.
One story that affected me and made me feel grateful for what I have is that of Claudio. Despite the awful living conditions, all Claudio could even think to complain about was that he had no work. Even when Shipler asked him "aside from the fact that there wasn't work, did he have any complaints about the camp and the way it was," Claudio didn't know what to say. When Shipler elaborated, asking again if there was "anything about it he didn't like," all Claudio could think of "was that there was no work."
While Shipler's appeals to ethos and logos are effective and necessary to carry and communicate his argument, they alone are not enough. For those who live far above the poverty line and well into wealth and prosperity, these facts and statistics are well known and have been made aware of. However, it is the appeals to pathos that morph these empty pieces of data into tangible people and situations; pathos is what spurs empathy, which in turn creates action and change. Shipler accompanies his data with pathos in very effective manners; for example, when he talked about the statistics of Latino workers and the dangers they face in the Harvest of Shame chapter, and then illustrates the reality of these numbers through the lives of the affected
The author appeals to pathos by explaining the difficult lives of the working poor who suffer due to their lack of money and resources. Every story is heart breaking and gets the reader thinking about how underpraised these people are and how they're almost looked down upon, or not even seen at all in our society. An example of this is when the author mentions that "the clerk who files cancelled checks at the bank has $2.02 in her own account."
Shipler appeals to pathos by using these peoples stories and daily struggles to make it known how much these people have to work to not get enough in the end.
Shipler appeals to pathos by using testimonies and interviews of people in the work force that are actual working poor, this appeals to pathos by letting the reader feel sympathy for the people in these situations and brings to light how these people actually live day to day.
Already in the beginning, Shipler is appealing to pathos as he talks of the irony people go through of working the jobs where they can't even afford the products related to the job. Alongside the statistics, he goes through a variety of stories, people who have been scammed by big companies and working late hours, questioning their purpose of life.
Starting from the beginning, Shipler uses an appeal to pathos through all of the individual stories of families who have struggled to lift themselves out of poverty. For example, in chapter 3, Shipler explains how many immigrants from countries such as Mexico and Honduras are extremely underpaid and remain in those same positions with little room for improvement. He explains how an immigrant worker named Maria struggles to get by with her garment business. “They lived on a shoestring and didn’t even have medical insurance”, exclaims Shipler when talking about Maria and her husband Yannis. This shows the great struggle that many families have gone through, when only trying to provide for themselves and for their families. This makes the reader sympathize for these families which furthermore appeals to pathos, or emotion. Each of these stories that is mentioned by Shipler puts the reader in the shoes of the less-fortunate, and creates many emotions within the reader that furthermore drives home his claim that many families are unable to bring themselves out of poverty no matter how hard they work.
Shipler appeals to pathos by using many saddening and eye-opening stories from the people he interviews. From stories about unwanted teen pregnancies to the loss of a wive and mother to cancer, pathos is used to make the reader feel something for the people who’s stories are being told.
This author uses pathos whenever speaking of something related to the hardships of the poor, weather its mistreatment of children or low wages or teen pregnancy. He uses pathos in a way that catches the readers attention very vividly.
Mrs. Theaker's students will be conducting discussions about The Working Poor by David K. Shipler here.